粤北良源铌钽铷钨矿床地质、成岩成矿时代与成矿模式

范飞鹏, 肖惠良, 陈乐柱, 李海立, 鲍晓明. 2022. 粤北良源铌钽铷钨矿床地质、成岩成矿时代与成矿模式. 岩石学报, 38(2): 393-410. doi: 10.18654/1000-0569/2022.02.06
引用本文: 范飞鹏, 肖惠良, 陈乐柱, 李海立, 鲍晓明. 2022. 粤北良源铌钽铷钨矿床地质、成岩成矿时代与成矿模式. 岩石学报, 38(2): 393-410. doi: 10.18654/1000-0569/2022.02.06
FAN FeiPeng, XIAO HuiLiang, CHEN LeZhu, LI HaiLi, BAO XiaoMing. 2022. Deposit geology, geochronology and metallogenic model of Liangyuan Nb-Ta-Rb-W deposit in northern Guangdong Province. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 38(2): 393-410. doi: 10.18654/1000-0569/2022.02.06
Citation: FAN FeiPeng, XIAO HuiLiang, CHEN LeZhu, LI HaiLi, BAO XiaoMing. 2022. Deposit geology, geochronology and metallogenic model of Liangyuan Nb-Ta-Rb-W deposit in northern Guangdong Province. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 38(2): 393-410. doi: 10.18654/1000-0569/2022.02.06

粤北良源铌钽铷钨矿床地质、成岩成矿时代与成矿模式

  • 基金项目:

    本文受中国地质调查局工作项目(DD20221688、DD20190153、1212011120811、1212010533003)和江苏省面上基金(BK20191132)联合资助

详细信息
    作者简介:

    范飞鹏, 男, 1982年生, 硕士, 正高级工程师, 从事矿产资源调查与评价工作, E-mail: fanfp1111@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P597.3;P618.7

Deposit geology, geochronology and metallogenic model of Liangyuan Nb-Ta-Rb-W deposit in northern Guangdong Province

  • 良源铌钽铷钨矿床位于南岭东西向构造岩浆带与武夷山北东向构造带交汇部位。良源铌钽铷钨矿床是粤北地区近年在石英型钨矿、云英岩型铌钽铷钨矿和花岗岩型铌钽铷多金属矿勘查评价取得最重要突破矿区,新发现铌钽铷钨矿体4条,共、伴生Nb2O5资源量3425.72吨,平均品位0.0108%;Ta2O5资源量1428.99吨,平均品位0.00449%;WO3资源量8205.14吨,平均品位0.25%;伴生Rb2O资源量61398.73吨,平均品位0.0987%,矿区具有大型-超大型资源潜力。良源铌钽铷钨矿床矿化特征为浅部石英脉型钨多金属矿体和云英岩型铌钽铷钨矿体+深部花岗岩型铌钽铷矿体,与以往的石英脉型钨矿"五层楼"+"地下室"成矿特征明显不同,因此对其开展成矿年代学、元素富集成矿规律和成矿模式研究具有重要意义。本文在对矿床成矿地质特征研究基础上,开展了详细的矿物学和年代学研究,应用锆石SHRIMP U-Pb法获得云英岩成岩时代为163.6~159.2Ma;黑云母花岗岩锆石206Pb/238U加权平均年龄为163.0±1.6Ma.应用白云母40Ar-39Ar等时线法获得云英岩型矿体成矿时代为166.4±1.1Ma,白云母花岗岩型矿体成矿时代为168.7±1.2Ma。研究表明,良源铌钽铷钨矿床形成于中-晚侏罗世,是华南东部中生代大规模花岗质岩浆活动与铌钽铷多金属成矿作用开始的产物,其成矿作用是花岗质岩浆高度分异形成的产物,成岩与成矿时间基本一致。浅部为石英脉型钨矿和云英岩型钨锡铌钽铷矿化,岩体接触带为云英岩型钨铌钽铷矿体,深部为高分异花岗岩型铌钽铷矿体。根据以上研究成果,本文建立了良源铌钽铷钨矿床成矿模式,对南岭地区石英脉型-云英岩型-花岗岩型稀有金属成矿理论具有一定的拓展意义,对该地区下一步勘查工作部署具有重要实践意义。

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  • 图 1 

    南岭地区地质矿产简图(据陈骏等, 2008修改)

    Figure 1. 

    The simplified geological map in Nanling region (modified after Chen et al., 2008)

    图 2 

    良源铌钽铷钨矿床地质简图

    Figure 2. 

    Simplified Geological map of the Liangyuan Nb-Ta-Rb-W deposit

    图 3 

    良源铌钽铷钨矿区3号勘探线剖面图

    Figure 3. 

    Section map of No.3 exploration line of the Liangyuan Nb-Ta-Rb-W deposit

    图 4 

    良源铌钽铷钨矿床石英脉型黑钨矿+云英岩型铌钽铷+花岗岩型铌钽铷矿体特征照片

    Figure 4. 

    Characteristics of quartz vine-type tungsten orebody+greisen type Nb-Ta-Rb orebody+granite type Nb-Ta-Rb orebody in the Liangyuan Nb-Ta-Rb-W deposit

    图 5 

    良源铌钽铷钨矿床单偏光下各类矿石矿物特征

    Figure 5. 

    The characteristics of ore minerals in the Liangyuan Nb-Ta-Rb-W deposit under PPL

    图 6 

    良源铌钽铷钨矿床云英岩标本及镜下特征

    Figure 6. 

    The characteristics of specimens and microscope in the Liangyuan Nb-Ta-Rb-W deposit

    图 7 

    良源铌钽铷钨矿床云英岩锆石阴极发光图像及测试点位图

    Figure 7. 

    Cathodeluminescence (CL) images and sampling position of the greisen in the Liangyuan Nb-Ta-Rb-W deposit

    图 8 

    良源铌钽铷钨矿床花岗岩(ZK303-TW1-1)中锆石U-Pb年龄谐和图

    Figure 8. 

    The U-Pb concordia diagram of zircons of the granite(ZK303-TW1-1) in the Liangyuan Nb-Ta-Rb-W deposit

    图 9 

    良源铌钽铷钨矿床LY14-Ar-01样品白云母40Ar-39Ar坪年龄图谱(a)和等时线年龄图解(b)

    Figure 9. 

    40Ar-39Ar spectrum age (a) and isochron age (b) for muscovite of sample LY14-Ar-01 from the Liangyuan Nb-Ta-Rb-W deposit

    图 10 

    良源铌钽铷钨矿床LY14-Ar-02样品白云母40Ar-39Ar坪年龄图谱(a)和等时线年龄图解(b)

    Figure 10. 

    40Ar-39Ar spectrum age (a) and isochron age (b) for muscovite of sample LY14-Ar-02 from the Liangyuan Nb-Ta-Rb-W deposit

    图 11 

    南岭地区铌钽稀有金属成矿年龄直方图

    Figure 11. 

    Histogram of mineralization ages of Nb-Ta rare metals in Nanling region

    图 12 

    良源铌钽铷钨矿床花岗岩球粒陨石标准化稀土元素配分图(标准化值据Sun and McDonough, 1989)

    Figure 12. 

    Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the granites in the Liangyuan Nb-Ta-Rb-W deposit (normalization values after Sun and McDonough, 1989)

    图 13 

    良源铌钽铷钨矿床成矿模式图

    Figure 13. 

    Metallogenic model of the Liangyuan Nb-Ta-Rb-W deposit

    表 1 

    良源铌钽铷钨矿床矿体特征表

    Table 1. 

    List of ore bodies characteristics of the Liangyuan Nb-Ta-Rb-W deposit

    矿体编号 赋存空间 规模(米) 形态 平均品位(%) 矿石类型
    矿体埋深(米) 标高(米) 长度 延深 平均厚度 Ta2O5 Nb2O5 WO3 Rb2O Sn
    Ⅰ-1 0 200~400 5~500 10~200 0.1~0.5 脉状 0.3~1.8 0.003~3 石英脉型
    0~49.66 202~395 500 50 15 层状 0.0055 0.0104 0.25 0.088 云英岩型、花岗岩型铌钽钨矿
    3~147.79 165.2~294 >450 >100 30 似层状 0.00498 0.0125 0.103 花岗岩型铌钽矿
    0~131.97 171.03~395 >300 80 20 似层状 0.0035 0.0086 0.103 花岗岩型铷伴生铌钽矿
    51.74~158.51 90.5~259 >450 100 60 层状 0.0956 花岗岩型铷矿
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 2 

    良源铌钽铷钨矿云英岩SHRIMP锆石U-Pb分析结果

    Table 2. 

    SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating of the greisen in the Liangyuan Nb-Ta-Rb-W deposit

    测点号 206Pbc U Th Th/U 206Pb* 年龄(Ma) 同位素比值
    (%) (×10-6) (×10-6) 206Pb/238U ±1σ 207Pb*/235U ±1σ 206Pb*/238U ±1σ Err.corr
    LY10-1b
    1.1 6.69 2027 1529 0.78 47.9 163.6 ±6.8 0.103 58.0 0.02570 4.2 0.072
    2.1 12.27 2425 5196 2.21 59.2 159.2 ±6.2 0.358 16.0 0.02501 4.0 0.243
    3.1 33.88 6727 8113 1.25 444.0 321.0 ±19.0 3.720 7.1 0.05110 6.1 0.864
    11-TW2
    1.1 4.60 358.5 125.3 0.36 24.9 479.0 ±10.0 0.520 17.0 0.07720 2.3 0.134
    2.1 12.76 318.5 217.7 0.71 7.4 151.0 ±7.3 0.167 59.0 0.02370 4.9 0.083
    3.1 8.03 603.7 442.7 0.76 14.2 160.3 ±3.4 0.151 24.0 0.02518 2.1 0.088
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 3 

    良源铌钽铷钨矿床花岗岩(ZK303-TW1-1)LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb分析结果

    Table 3. 

    LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb data of the granite (ZK303-TW1-1) in the Liangyuan Nb-Ta-Rb-W deposit

    测点号 Th U Th/U 同位素比值 年龄(Ma) 谐和度
    (×10-6) 1σ 1σ 1σ 1σ 1σ 1σ (%)
    1 359.2 775.3 0.46 0.0522 0.0019 0.1837 0.0071 0.0251 0.0004 294.5 83.3 171.3 6.1 159.9 2.4 93
    2 523.0 1059 0.49 0.0522 0.0015 0.1867 0.0052 0.0257 0.0003 294.5 69.4 173.8 4.4 163.7 2.0 94
    3 1431 3487 0.41 0.0527 0.0012 0.1867 0.0045 0.0254 0.0003 322.3 51.8 173.8 3.8 161.5 2.2 92
    4 1091 3011 0.36 0.0508 0.0013 0.1771 0.0046 0.0251 0.0003 231.6 63.9 165.6 3.9 159.8 2.0 96
    5 888.0 2152 0.41 0.0486 0.0012 0.1708 0.0044 0.0253 0.0003 127.9 54.6 160.1 3.8 160.9 2.2 99
    6 322.5 569.4 0.57 0.0484 0.0019 0.1706 0.0067 0.0258 0.0004 116.8 94.4 160.0 5.8 164.1 2.6 97
    7 758.7 1266 0.60 0.0505 0.0015 0.1844 0.0056 0.0262 0.0003 220.4 66.7 171.9 4.8 167.0 2.1 97
    8 446.3 1721 0.26 0.0493 0.0013 0.1764 0.0049 0.0257 0.0004 164.9 65.7 165.0 4.2 163.6 2.3 99
    9 265.5 1243 0.21 0.0490 0.0014 0.1697 0.0046 0.0251 0.0004 146.4 66.7 159.2 4.0 159.8 2.3 99
    10 272.5 525.7 0.52 0.0466 0.0022 0.1707 0.0083 0.0265 0.0005 31.6 107.4 160.0 7.2 168.3 3.3 94
    11 263.8 397.8 0.66 0.0502 0.0022 0.1766 0.0075 0.0257 0.0005 211.2 101.8 165.1 6.5 163.6 2.9 99
    12 311.2 633.7 0.49 0.0536 0.0018 0.1988 0.0067 0.0267 0.0004 366.7 74.1 184.1 5.7 170.1 2.4 92
    13 259.4 460.7 0.56 0.0461 0.0018 0.1613 0.0063 0.0255 0.0004 400.1 -305.5 151.9 5.5 162.1 2.5 93
    14 458.8 502.9 0.91 0.0568 0.0027 0.1972 0.0092 0.0255 0.0004 483.4 103.7 182.8 7.8 162.2 2.5 88
    15 453.7 455.4 1.00 0.0502 0.0017 0.1734 0.0055 0.0252 0.0004 205.6 75.9 162.4 4.7 160.2 2.2 98
    16 367.3 424.7 0.86 0.0491 0.0017 0.1763 0.0059 0.0263 0.0004 153.8 76.8 164.8 5.1 167.2 2.6 98
    17 320.6 1239 0.26 0.0498 0.0013 0.1775 0.0048 0.0258 0.0003 187.1 65.7 165.9 4.2 164.4 2.1 99
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 4 

    良源铌钽铷钨矿床白云母40Ar-39Ar阶段升温测年数据结果

    Table 4. 

    40Ar-39Ar stepwise heating analytical data of muscovite from the Liangyuan Nb-Ta-Rb-W deposit

    温阶 (36Ar/39Ar)m (37Ar/39Ar)m (40Ar/39Ar)m (40Ar*/39Ar)c 39Ar 40Ar* 39Ar (Cum.) Age ±1σ
    (℃) (×10-14mol) (%) (%) (Ma)
    样品号LY14-Ar-01
    700 0.0121 0 44.402 40.814 0.05 92 3.1 162.9 2.1
    750 0.0178 0.0002 47.108 41.84 0.1 89 9.7 166.9 2.2
    780 0.011 0.0001 44.664 41.405 0.11 93 17.3 165.2 2.1
    810 0.01 0 44.373 41.421 0.23 93 32.4 165.3 2.1
    850 0.0119 0 45.123 41.592 0.25 92 49.1 165.9 2.1
    880 0.0132 0 45.656 41.745 0.2 91 62.7 166.5 2.1
    930 0.0152 0.0001 46.353 41.85 0.18 90 74.6 166.9 2.1
    980 0.0132 0.0001 45.785 41.864 0.15 91 84.6 166.9 2.1
    1050 0.0146 0.001 46.741 42.434 0.14 91 94.3 169.1 3.2
    1250 0.0194 0.0001 48.065 42.33 0.07 88 99.3 171.2 2.1
    1450 0.1179 0.0009 84.624 49.789 0.01 59 100 199.7 3
    样品号LY14-Ar-02
    700 0.011 0.0001 45.728 42.47 0.12 93 4.3 169.8 2.1
    750 0.0142 0.0001 46.82 42.604 0.11 91 8 170.3 2.1
    780 0.0063 0 43.362 41.488 0.48 96 24.5 166.1 2.1
    810 0.0082 0 44.399 41.961 0.42 95 38.8 167.7 2.1
    850 0.0122 0 46.009 42.383 0.3 92 49.1 169.5 2.1
    880 0.009 0 44.76 42.099 0.39 94 62.3 168.4 2.1
    930 0.0106 0 45.371 42.226 0.34 93 74.1 168.9 2.1
    980 0.017 0 48.187 43.153 0.21 90 81.3 172.4 2.2
    1050 0.0186 0.0001 49.553 44.062 0.19 89 87.8 175.9 2.2
    1250 0.0194 0.0001 49.349 43.612 0.19 88 94.2 174.2 2.2
    1450 0.021 0.0001 49.82 43.607 0.17 87 100 174.2 2.2
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 5 

    良源铌钽铷钨矿床中各类矿物电子探针数据(wt%)

    Table 5. 

    The electron microprobe analyses of minerals from the Liangyuan Nb-Ta-Rb-W deposit

    矿物 锡石 锡石 锡石 锡石 白钨矿 白钨矿 白钨矿 钍石 钼铅矿 钼铅矿 钨钼铅矿 黑钨矿 黑钨矿 砷酸铋矿 砷酸铋矿 砷酸铋矿
    WO3 0.66 0.11 0.85 0.19 78.00 79.73 79.35 0.09 34.26 75.07 73.36 0.20 0.01 0.25
    MnO 20.38 22.31
    Rb2O 0.04 0.01 0.04
    Bi2O3 0.02 79.88 78.15 78.48
    Ta2O5 0.04 0.06 0.05 0.13 0.23 0.02 0.06 0.09
    As2O5 15.84 21.57 16.95
    PbO 0.13 0.12 4.49 62.25 62.76 53.40
    CaO 19.85 19.40 19.63
    ThO2 13.41
    UO2 81.79
    FeO 0.06 4.23 4.47
    P2O5 3.44 0.06 4.06
    MoO3 0.06 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 37.96 37.42 11.85 0.03 0.38
    HfO2 0.10
    Ce2O3 0.26 0.19 0.33
    Sb2O5 0.06 0.14 0.11 0.20
    SnO2 98.84 98.75 98.51 99.27 0.09 0.01
    Nb2O5 0.14 0.14 0.06 0.14 0.01 0.18 0.11
    Yb2O3 0.40 0.35 0.45
    ZrO2 0.07 0.02 0.05 0.51 0.50 0.45
    Y2O3 0.01 0.02 0.24 0.10 0.21
    Total 99.84 99.15 99.50 99.75 99.39 100.47 100.51 99.99 100.21 100.27 99.51 99.89 100.24 99.90 100.00 100.15
    注:空白为未测出
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 6 

    南岭地区主要铌钽矿床的成矿年龄

    Table 6. 

    Metallogenic ages of main Nb-Ta deposits in Nanling region

    矿产地 矿种组合 采样地质体 成矿年龄(Ma) 测试方法 文献
    江西广昌西港 Li-Ta 花岗伟晶岩 420~430 铌铁矿U-Pb Che et al., 2019
    福建南平 Ta-Nb-Li 花岗伟晶岩 391 铌钽铁矿U-Pb Che et al., 2015
    广西恭县栗木 Ta、Nb 花岗岩 211~214 白云母Ar-Ar 李胜虎, 2015
    广西恭县栗木 Ta、Nb 花岗岩 ~218 铌铁矿U-Pb Che et al., 2019
    湖南临武尖峰岭 Li、Be、Nb、Ta 花岗岩 160 锆石U-Pb 轩一撒等, 2014
    湖南临武尖峰岭 Li、Be、Nb、Ta 花岗岩 160 铌铁矿U-Pb Che et al., 2019
    湖南临武癞子岭 Be、Nb、Ta、Sn 花岗岩 155 锆石U-Pb 朱金初等, 2011
    江西全南大吉山 Ta、Nb、W 含辉钼矿石英脉 161 辉钼矿Re-Os 张思明等, 2011
    界牌岭 Ta、Nb 花岗岩 ~90 铌钽铁矿U-Pb Che et al., 2019
    江西横峰黄 Nb、Ta 花岗岩 130 铌钽铁矿U-Pb Che et al., 2019
    江西宜春414 W、Ta 花岗岩 160 铌钽铁矿U-Pb Che et al., 2015
    湖北断峰山 Nb-Ta-Nb-Be-Li 花岗伟晶岩 128 白云母Ar-Ar 李建康等, 2019
    湖南湘阴望湘 Nb 花岗岩 137 全岩b-Sr 地矿部南岭项目花岗岩专题组, 1989
    湖南平江仁里 Ta-Li-Be-Nb-Ta 花岗伟晶岩 130 铌钽铁矿U-Pb 李建康等, 2019
    湖南连云山 Li-Be-Nb-Ta 花岗伟晶岩 130 辉钼矿Re-Os 李建康等, 2019
    广东良源 Nb、Ta、Rb、W 云英岩 168.7±1.2 白云母Ar-Ar 本文
    广东良源 Nb、Ta、Rb、W 二云母花岗岩 166.4±1.2 云母Ar-Ar 本文
    广东良源 Nb-Ta-Rb、W 云英岩 160 锆石SHRIMP U-Pb 本文
    广东良源 Nb-Ta-Rb、W 云英岩 164~159 锆石SHRIMP U-Pb 本文
    广东良源 Nb-Ta-Rb、W 黑云母花岗岩 163.0±1.6 LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb 本文
    广东南山坑 钨锡多金属矿 辉钼矿 160.5±1.4 辉钼矿Re-Os 未发表数据
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 7 

    良源铌钽铷钨矿床花岗岩类稀土元素分析测试结果表(×10-6)

    Table 7. 

    Trace and rare earth elements of granites in the Liangyuan Nb-Ta-Rb-W deposit(×10-6)

    样品号 岩性 La Ce Pr Nd Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er
    SY301-GS1 云英岩 4.30 12.20 1.72 6.20 2.63 0.03 2.41 0.57 3.48 0.60 1.99
    ZK101-H55 白云母花岗岩 4.70 13.20 1.68 6.30 2.87 0.03 2.53 0.63 3.96 0.69 2.29
    ZK101-H64 白云母花岗岩 4.80 13.20 1.68 6.30 2.80 0.03 2.60 0.55 3.65 0.69 2.07
    ZK101-H110 二云母花岗岩 5.00 14.50 1.82 6.80 3.11 0.03 2.59 0.56 3.58 0.68 2.14
    ZK101-H134 二云母花岗岩 4.80 13.60 1.76 6.50 2.89 0.04 2.71 0.60 3.80 0.74 2.35
    ZK102-H78 黑云母花岗岩 19.20 48.00 5.89 22.20 6.72 0.22 5.92 1.07 6.83 1.42 4.14
    样品号 岩性 Tm Yb Lu Y ∑REE LREE HREE LREE/HREE (La/Yb)N δEu δCe
    SY301-GS1 云英岩 0.38 3.15 0.46 18.70 40.12 27.08 13.04 2.08 0.92 0.04 1.05
    ZK101-H55 白云母花岗岩 0.44 3.72 0.57 25.60 43.61 28.78 14.83 1.94 0.85 0.03 1.10
    ZK101-H64 白云母花岗岩 0.40 3.42 0.54 24.10 42.73 28.81 13.92 2.07 0.95 0.03 1.09
    ZK101-H110 二云母花岗岩 0.40 3.41 0.53 23.90 45.15 31.26 13.89 2.25 0.99 0.03 1.13
    ZK101-H134 二云母花岗岩 0.46 4.02 0.63 24.90 44.90 29.59 15.31 1.93 0.81 0.04 1.10
    ZK102-H78 黑云母花岗岩 0.66 4.89 0.76 45.90 127.9 102.23 25.69 3.98 2.65 0.11 1.06
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
收稿日期:  2021-07-24
修回日期:  2022-01-14
刊出日期:  2022-02-01

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