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PT J
AU Zhai, MG
AF Zhai MingGuo
TI Granites: Leading study issue for continental evolution
SO ACTA PETROLOGICA SINICA
AB The unique of the lithosphere in the earth is that it contains large amounts of granite, which does not occur elsewhere in the solar system. The continental crust of the earth is mainly composed of granite, whereas the oceanic crust is dominated by basalt. Unlike the short-lived oceanic crust which may have only existed in 200 to 300Myr on the earth, the continental crust can survive in 4000 to 4500Myr. The granite in the earth thus may record the history of the formation and evolution of the continental lithosphere of the Earth. The earliest continental crust is composed of Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) suite, however. TTG is neither a product of fractionation of magma ocean, nor of partial melting of the mantle. The origin of TTG is thus crucial for understanding the origin of continental crust. Extensive continental growth and cratonization occurred in Phanerozoic, which was associated with massive granite production and mineralization. All these issues are difficult to be explained by the current theory of plate tectonics. The answers for the key issues on the granite may trigger the new theory of solid earth sciences. Reworking of continental crust is related to intensive tectonothermal events in the earth as proposed by Prof. Guoda Chen and his "platform activation" model. Mesozoic large-scaled intracontinental deformation and extensive magmatism in East China may provide an ideal natural laboratory to study the dynamic mechanism of the continental reactivation and to understand plate tectonics and cratonization. Presence of voluminous granite may change the internal structure of the earth and the stability of continental lithosphere, leading to the craton re-activation or destruction. However, it remains unclear how these processes worked in the history of Phanerozoic continental crust. New theory rather than classic plate tectonics is desired to establish to explain the granite issues. The change from routine granite geochemistry to continental growth will make a real breakthrough in the theory of solid earth sciences in the 21st century. The 540th Xiangshan Conference on the key issues of granite research is a milestone to prompt the research of granite and continental evolution, rheology and thermodynamics in the next five years in China.
SN 1000-0569
EI 2095-8927
PY 2017
VL 33
IS 5
BP 1369
EP 1380
UT WOS:000403701000001
ER  

PT J
AU Wei, CJ
Guan, X
Dong, J
AF Wei ChunJing
Guan Xiao
Dong jie
TI HT-UHT metamorphism of metabasites and the petrogenesis of TTGs
SO ACTA PETROLOGICA SINICA
AB Partial melting of metabasites under high-temperature (HT) and ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) conditions can form Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) melts. The related melting mechanism, melt geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Archean TTGs have been widely concerned. Based on the reviews of relevant experimental studies along with metamorphic phase equilibria calculation of metabasites at HT-UHT conditions, the present paper presents an overview of the melting process of metabasites (amphibolites), P-T conditions and relations with the petrogenesis of TTGs. The HT-UHT metamorphic processes of metabasites are dominately controlled by amphibole dehydration melting reactions. The breakdown of amphibole in garnet-free domain under 1. 0GPa is dominated by a multivariant continuous reaction of hb = cpx + opx + pl + L (melt) (R1), occurring over a temperature range of 200 similar to 300 degrees C marked by the appearance of orthopyroxene at 800 degrees C and the disappearance of amphibole at 1000 similar to 1100 degrees C. According to experimental data, the initial melting temperature or the fluid-absent solidus of amphibolites corresponds to the temperature when orthopyroxene appears. In fact, the dehydration melting of amphibole should have started at temperatures just over the fluid-saturated solidus, and is dominated by reaction of hb + q = cpx + pl + L (R1a) with involvement of biotite in the initial melting stage, producing limited amount of melt. While in the garnet-bearing domains above 1. 0GPa, many experiments suggest that the fluid-absent solidi of garnet amphibolite lie between 800 similar to 900 degrees C with positive or negative slopes. Metamorphic phase equilibria modeling suggest that amphibole dehydration melting reactions in the garnet-bearing domains have steeply negative slopes and behave differently with or without the presence of plagioclase. In the plagioclase-bearing domains, amphibole dehydration melting reaction is hb + pl + q = g + cpx + L (R2) with the involvement of muscovite and epidote in the low-temperature stages. This reaction starts from the fluid-saturated solidus at similar to 630 degrees C and terminates when amphibole disappears at over 1000 degrees C, covering the P-T ranges of garnet amphibolite and amphibole high-pressure granulite facies. In the plagioclase-free domains, amphibole dehydration melting reaction is hb + q = g + cpx + L (R2a), which starts from the fluid-saturated solidus at similar to 650 degrees C involving muscovite and epidote in the low-temperature stages and terminates when amphibole is out at over 900 degrees C, covering over 200 similar to 300 degrees C. The fluid-absent residues after amphibole break-down give rise to granulite and eclogite. The temperature of dry-granulite should exceed 1000 degrees C Howevr, as a result of the retrograde metamorphic evolution involving the suprasolidus back-reactions between retention melt and residue and the subsolidus ion diffuson, most granulites can only preserve their assemblages at the fluid-absent solidi and record much lower cooling temperatures. The melt compositions from partial melting of metabaites depend on their protolith compositions, P-T conditions and melting degree. Low degree parial melting (e. g. < 5% melt) can produce potassium-rich granitic melts, and as melting degree increases, melt compositions will change to trondhjemitic (e. g. 5% similar to 20% melt) and tonalitic (e. g. > 20% melt). Only the partial melting of potassium-rich metabasites is possible to produce granodioritic to quartz monzonitic melts.
The Archean TTGs are characterized by high Sr content, low Y, Yb, Nb, Ta, Ti contents and highly fractionation in rare earth elements, which are inferred to be derived from partial melting of metabasites at relatively high pressure with residual garnet and rutile. What has has been argued is whether the partial melting occurs in garnet amphibolite facies (and amphibole high-pressure granulite facies) or in eclogite facies. The different conclusions reached from different experiments can be attributed to the geochemical variations of the source rocks used as starting materials. Given that the Archean komatiites and basalts which are regarded as the source of the TTGs vary a lot in geochemistry from one to another, the geochemistry variations of TTGs may not indicate their melting P-T conditions. Combining experimental data and phase equilibria modeling results, this paper suggests that TTGs are formed due to the amphibole dehydration melting reactions involving R2 & R2a in amphibole high-pressure granulite subfacies and amphibole-eclogite subfacies under P-T conditions of 1. 0 similar to 2. 5GPa / 800 similar to 1000/1100 degrees C, corresponding to geotherms 15 similar to 25 degrees C/km and 10 similar to 15 degrees C/km, respectively. The tectonic environments of TTGs can' t be interpretated simplely as those equivalent to the Phanerozoic hot oceanic subduction zones, collisional orogens and oceanic plateaus.
SN 1000-0569
EI 2095-8927
PY 2017
VL 33
IS 5
BP 1381
EP 1404
UT WOS:000403701000002
ER  

PT J
AU Wan, YS
Dong, CY
Ren, P
Bai, WQ
Xie, HQ
Liu, SJ
Xie, SW
Liu, DY
AF Wan YuSheng
Dong ChunYan
Ren Peng
Bai WenQian
Xie HangQiang
Liu ShouJie
Xie ShiWen
Liu DunYi
TI Spatial and temporal distribution, compositional characteristics and formation and evolution of Archean TTG rocks in the North China Craton: A synthesis
SO ACTA PETROLOGICA SINICA
AB Tonalite-Trondjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) rocks are the most important Archean geological records in the North China Craton (NCC) which has had a long geological history back to ca. 3. 8Ga ago. Eoarchean (3. 6 similar to 4. 0Ga) TTGs have only been identified in the Anshan-Benxi (Anben) area, although abundant 3. 6 similar to 3. 88Ga detrital zircons were discovered in several types of metasedimentary rocks in eastern Hebei; Paleoarchean (3. 2 similar to 3. 6Ga) TTGs occur in Anben, eastern Hebei and Xinyang; Mesoarchean (2. 8 similar to 3. 2Ga) TTGs occur in Anben, eastern Hebei, eastern Shandong and Lushan. Early Neoarchean (2.6 similar to 2. 8Ga) TTGs have been discovered in more than 10 areas, whereas Late Neoarchean TTGs almost occur in every Archean area. The common features of the Archean TTGs in the NCC are summarized as follows. 1) > 2. 8Ga TTGs locally occur in the NCC, only accounting for less than 5% of the Archean TTGs in the basement. They do not show an increasing trend in distribution with time, but this may be due to uneven reworking of old rocks during later geological processes. > 2. 6Ga TTGs mainly occur within the three ancient terranes identified by Wan et al. (2015) Neoarhean TTGs widely occur all over the NCC, same as other cratons in showing that the Neoarchean is the most important period of continental growth; 2) 3. 1 similar to 3. 8Ga and 2. 7 similar to 2. 9Ga intrusive rocks mainly are trondhjemite and tonalite, respectively, with some gabbro, diorite and crustally derived granites. Both the trondhjemite and tonalite are important during the period of 2. 5 similar to 2. 6Ga, it is until then that granodiorites widely occur together with K-rich granite (including monzogranite and syenogranite), a result of continental crust becoming high maturity; 3) TTG rocks exhibit variable REE contents from weakly to strongly fractionated REE patterns at similar to 3. 3Ga. This may be a result of thickening of continental crust during that period. 2. 5 similar to 3. 3Ga TTGs show large variations in REE patterns, although many of them have strong REE differentiation patterns, indicating variable forming conditions. Whole-rock Nd isotopes and Hf-in-zircon isotopes indicate that juvenile additions played important roles in formation of TTGs, however, crustal recycling was also necessary to account for the composition features of some TTGs, including 3. 8Ga trondjemitic rocks in the Anben area; 4) Long-term magmatism from 2. 9Ga to 3. 8Ga related to mantle activity and crustal reworking widely occurred in Anben. In eastern Hebei, detrital zircons record almost continuous ages ranging from 3. 4Ga to 3. 88Ga, although only 3. 0 similar to 3. 4Ga rocks were discovered until now. These suggest that mantle underplating or overturn activity may have been the main mechanism of continental growth and reworking before the Mesoarchean in the NCC. In contrast, continental growth was extensive and strong during the Neoarchean period, as suggested by the vast quantity of TTGs, the similar to 2. 5Ga tectono-thermal event was well developed, as recorded by metamorphic and anatectic zircons. These indicate that the continental crust of the NCC became thick enough at that time. It is considered that plate tectonics began to play an important role in the NCC during the Late Neoarchean.
SN 1000-0569
EI 2095-8927
PY 2017
VL 33
IS 5
BP 1405
EP 1419
UT WOS:000403701000003
ER  

PT J
AU Zeng, LS
Gao, LE
AF Zeng LingSen
Gao LiE
TI Cenozoic crustal anatexis and the leucogranites in the Himalayan collisional orogenic belt
SO ACTA PETROLOGICA SINICA
AB Since the India-Eurasian continental collision, the Himalayan orogenic belt has experienced major tectonic transitions from earlier crustal compression and thickening to later extension and rapid exhumation, which induced pronounced changes in the pressure-temperature-composition (P-T-X) of high-grade metamorphic rocks. Consequently, the mid to lower crustal rocks has undergone correspondingly different partial melting processes and produced a wide spectrum of melts of leucogranitic compositions. Such granites show substantial differences in ages of crystallization, mineral compositions, whole-rock element as well as radiogenic isotope (Sr and Nd) compositions. The earliest anatexis is represented by the Eocene (similar to 43 Ma) high Sr/Y granites from melting of mafic rocks under thickened crustal conditions, followed by the melting of metasedimentary rocks in the Oligocene time, possibly induced by the initiation of rapid exhumation of the Himalayan high grade basements. A majority of leucogranites formed from similar to 25Ma to similar to 10Ma were derived either from fluxed melting of muscovite (A-type) or from muscovite dehydration melting (B-type) of metasediments. These two modes of crustal anatexis, possibly from vastly similar source rocks, generated granitic melts with substantial differences in major and trace element as well as Sr isotope geochemistry due to the coupled differences in the melting behavior of the major minerals (muscovite, feldspar) and accessory phases (zircon and monazite) during different modes of crustal anatexis. Each phases of leucogranite production are accompanied by various degrees of differentiation and the formation of highly fractionated leucogranites. Some of such leucogranites are highly enriched in key metal elements (Sn, Nb, Ta, and Be) and thus could be potential targets for future exploration of precious metals. Data summarized in this contribution suggests a strong coupling of granite chemical compositions with the changes in tectonic regimes, which in turn implies that leucogranites, by sorting out their original melt compositions, could serve as a valuable probe to investigate the physical and chemical behavior of deep crustal rocks in collisional orogenic belts worldwide.
SN 1000-0569
EI 2095-8927
PY 2017
VL 33
IS 5
BP 1420
EP 1444
UT WOS:000403701000004
ER  

PT J
AU Wang, XL
AF Wang XiaoLei
TI Some new research progresses and main scientific problems of granitic rocks
SO ACTA PETROLOGICA SINICA
AB After about sixty-year studies on granitic rocks and especially the rapid developments on geochemistry and in situ zircon U-Pb and Hf-O isotopic analyses in recent decades, it is the time to find new research clues and methods to carry out further studies on granitoids. This paper summarizes the new progresses on the cut-edge studies of granitoids by domestic and international geologists in the recent decades. Seven main research topics are concluded: 1) granitoids of early Earth and continental evolution; 2) source heterogeneity and heterogeneous crustal melting; 3) isotopic tracing on variations of magmatic compositions; 4) mixing of crust- and mantle-derived magmas for petrogenesis of granitoids; 5) relationship between deep crustal hot zone and formations of intermediate to felsic rocks; 6) timescale of plutonic growth and crystallization; and 7) the applications of metal stable isotopes in the studies of granitoids. Based on the tendencies of current granite studies, it is suggested to carry out fine studies on source and magmatic processes of granites by new perspectives and techniques. The relationships between granite and the formation of earliest crust are also very important for future studies.
SN 1000-0569
EI 2095-8927
PY 2017
VL 33
IS 5
BP 1445
EP 1458
UT WOS:000403701000005
ER  

PT J
AU Wang, T
Wang, XX
Guo, L
Zhang, L
Tong, Y
Li, S
Huang, H
Zhang, JJ
AF Wang Tao
Wang XiaoXia
Guo Lei
Zhang Lei
Tong Ying
Li Shan
Huang He
Zhang JianJun
TI Granitoid and tectonics
SO ACTA PETROLOGICA SINICA
AB Granitoids are currently known to exist only on the Earth, and form a major part of the continental crust, distinguishing the earth from other planets and the continental crust from the oceanic crust. Combined with previous studies, this paper introduces the "Granitic tectonics" and expounds its connotation, research approaches and contents, and the direction. It regards granitoid as a tectonic and geological indicator, and aims at exploring solutions to tectonic problems, from the perspective of granitoids. Research contents mainly include physical properties (structure), compositions (petrogeochemistry) and geochronology. (1) Physical property and tectonic significance of emplacement of voluminous granitic magmas, including magma ascent, migration and emplacement, as well as constructions of plutons and plutonic belts; (2) deformations of granitoid pluton and the tectonic significance; (3) source of granitic magma and continental growth, as well as deep structures to divide orogenic types in light of volume of juvenile and old compositions, and (4) relation between the formation of giant granitic belts and the movement of continents, to trace the magmatic response to the assemblage and breakup of supercontinents and medium to small plates. Studies on granitoid geodynamics would be able to enrich geotectonic research, which also lead to a new understanding of the generation, development processes and tectonic settings of granitoid plutons/belts. It is necessary for multidisciplinary integration of Earth sciences.
SN 1000-0569
EI 2095-8927
PY 2017
VL 33
IS 5
BP 1459
EP 1478
UT WOS:000403701000006
ER  

PT J
AU Ma, CQ
Li, YQ
AF Ma ChangQian
Li YanQing
TI Incremental growth of granitoid plutons and highly crystalline magmatic differentiation
SO ACTA PETROLOGICA SINICA
AB Understanding the genesis of granites is fundamental to understanding the formation and differentiation of continental crust. Geological, geophysical, geochronological and field studies, combined with modeling of thermal evolution of plutons, indicate that many granitic bodies emplaced in the upper crust result from the amalgamation of several, discrete magma pulses over several million years or even a longer timescale. Hypothesized batholith-scale magma chambers may not exist in the crust, and magma bodies with the capacity for flow of melts are generally small (< 1000m). A magma body 1000m wide would cool down to solidus on a timescale of thousands of years. The formation of composite intrusions generally has three stages: source magma upwelling along dikes, transformation from dykes to sill-like intrusions at the brittle-ductile transition of the crust, and growth of the magma body by the vertical stacking of numerous sill-like magma bodies. Magma chambers in the crust, especially those successively-intruded magma bodies, are mainly composed of crystal mush. The crystal mush is adverse to convection, differentiation or mixing owning to the high crystal content, high viscosity and weak activity. However, the viscous mushy magma can be heated, becoming more highly melted and less viscous when the mantle-derived mafic magmas intrude into the crust. This leads to differentiation inside one magma body and mixing between magmas with distinct compositions. Finally, when the buoyancy of the bottom highly molten magma is high enough, or with an injection of volatiles, it will rise rapidly, penetrate the upper mushy magma and trigger large-scale volcanic eruptions. The activity of crustal magmatism is enhancing when there is an increase in the flux of mantle-derived magma. Thus, large-scale felsic magma may form a super volcano. It is proposed in this paper that understanding relationships between plutonism-volcanism and felsic-mafic rocks is fundamental for a better understanding of the genesis of granites. Moreover, we must pay close attention to multiple factors, such as time- and spatial-scale of the intrusions, evolution of the magma fluxes, differentiation mechanism of highly crystalline rocks, contribution of mantle heat and materials, and the role of the volatiles during magma differentiation and volcanic eruption. These factors should be combined with a comprehensive study of field observation, petrology, geochemistry, isotopic chronology and magma dynamics to achieve a more complete understanding of the formation and evolution of continental crust.
SN 1000-0569
EI 2095-8927
PY 2017
VL 33
IS 5
BP 1479
EP 1488
UT WOS:000403701000007
ER  

PT J
AU Chen, GN
Wang, Y
Chen, Z
Peng, ZL
AF Chen GuoNeng
Wang Yong
Chen Zhen
Peng ZhuoLun
TI Advance and consideration on the mechanism of formation and emplacement of granitic magma
SO ACTA PETROLOGICA SINICA
AB Granite (sensu lato) that belongs to the continental crust is the rock of distinguishing the lithosphere of the earth from that of other planets. Geological evidence from both planetary exploration and ODP constrain the formation of granite: no granite was generated during transition from magmatic surface to rocky shell of the inner planets, and formation of granite and its related continental crust should initiate after the occurrence of sedimentary rocks on the earth' s surface. The average growth rate of granite in 2-D space of the lithosphere is about 485 x 10(3) km(2)/Myr and magma is considered mainly from the partial melting of crustal rocks (anatexis). On the basis, we introduce the progression in the study of crustal anatexis and the relationship between rheological behaviors and melt fraction of the partially melted rocks, and compare the similarities and differences of the both models, i. e. magma intrusion and the magma convection, on explaining the formation-emplacement mechanism of granitic magma. The magma source and its related granite body are separated in the magma intrusion model. One of the difficulties for the model is that the magma source is located beneath its related granite body and thus used to be unobservable unless the granite body and the rocks between the granite and the source have been moved out by erosion or structure. Finally, we brief the study advance of intra-crustal magma convection. In the convection model, the source and the emplacement place of magma are regarded as a whole. When the melt fraction of the rocks in the source region reaches the solid-liquid transition (SLT), the rocks change into "dirty" magma. Gravitational differentiation within the "dirty" magma layer initiates heat convection that results in moving up of the MI (SLT) and thickening of the crustal magma layer. It is concluded that thermal convection within a crustal melting layer is essential for formation of granite magma; without convection, partial melting generates migmatite, but not magma that forms granite batholiths.
SN 1000-0569
EI 2095-8927
PY 2017
VL 33
IS 5
BP 1489
EP 1497
UT WOS:000403701000008
ER  

PT J
AU Chen, Z
Chen, GN
Liu, YJ
Liu, J
AF Chen Zhen
Chen GuoNeng
Liu YongJiang
Liu Jie
TI Research advance on numerical simulation of thermodynamic process of granite formation
SO ACTA PETROLOGICA SINICA
AB Unobservability of the rock-forming process of granite has resulted in a long-term controversy of granite genesis. Numerical techniques combined with super-computer create the possibility of digital reconstruction of the thermodynamic process of granite formation. Here we first look back the advance in study of physical-chemical parameter of rock-melting, introduce the concept of crustal 'average strength' and re-determine the positions of the known rheological transitions, i. e. the MCT, FMT and SLT on the relationship of crustal average strength vs. melt fraction. Secondly, a review of advance in physical and numerical simulations of the various models of magma emplacement is given, and the un-universal characteristics of digital models constructed on different emplacement modes are discussed, which are mainly ascribed to the separation of source and room of magma in the intrusion model. Finally, we introduce the 2-D numerical simulation of large-scale crustal melting in the Tianhe-2 super-computer on the basis of in-situ melting model by Chen and Grapes (2007), preliminarily reconstructing the thermodynamic process of formation of granite and migmatite. The modeling result indicates that thermal convection within a crustal partial melting region is essential for formation of granite magma; Roof-stopping results in the upward motion of the MI (SLT) and thus thickening the convection magma layer; And prerequisite for development of a crustal magma layer is not a very high temperature, but a sustained energy input to maintain the convection state of the magma system.
SN 1000-0569
EI 2095-8927
PY 2017
VL 33
IS 5
BP 1498
EP 1506
UT WOS:000403701000009
ER  

PT J
AU Pan, ZJ
Zhang, Q
Chen, G
Jiao, ST
Du, XL
Miao, XQ
Wang, JR
An, Y
AF Pan ZhenJie
Zhang Qi
Chen Gang
Jiao ShouTao
Du XueLiang
Miao XiuQuan
Wang JinRong
An Yi
TI Relation between Mesozoic magmatism and plate subduction in eastern China: Comparison among Zhejiang-Fujian, Japan arc and Andes arc
SO ACTA PETROLOGICA SINICA
AB The Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic background of eastern China is the top concern for geologists in China. After theplate tectonic theory is introduced into China since the 1970s, the Chinese geologists generally accepted the view that eastern China Mesozoic subduction of the Pacific plate to Eurasian plate result in strong tectonic-magmatic activities and corresponding mineralization, and even become generally cognitive theory remains widespread by Chinese and foreign scholars. But, this paper argues that a lot of problems. As is known to all, island arc predominantly basalt exposed, continental arc are composed dominantly of andesite, basalt and andesite are not developed in eastern China. In this paper, according to the thinking way of big data, Japan island arc and the Andean arc Cenozoic magmatic rocks statistics show that the above understanding is basically right: Japan arc mainly basalt, second is andesite; Andean arc mainly is andesite, followed by basalt; And eastern China (represented by Zhejiang-Fujian area), are mainly granite, the second is basalt, a bimodal distribution characteristics. The tectonic background of eastern China is completely different from Japan and the Andean, and there is not clear evidence of subduction in eastern China. Second, island arc and continental arc have obvious composition and structure zoning, such as Japan arc, magmatic activity is starting from the trench, then front-arc, arc, rear-arc to back-arc. Andean arc is less obviously than Japan, eastwards from the trench to the mainland fore-arc trench complex-arc magmatic rocks-back-arc basin. Where is structure and composition zone associated with subduction in eastern China (including the East China Sea continental shelf, China's eastern coastal) ? Our study focused on the Zhejiang-Fujian area 400km width within the scope of the distribution of the Jurassic and Cretaceous magmatic rocks, from age to geochemical (SiO2, MgO style, the change of K2O, the change of the age, etc.), never has the tendency of zonation from east to west, how to link to plate subduction? Island arc magmatic rocks mainly comes from the depleted mantle, oceanic crust, deep sea sediments, and the fluid caused by the subduction zone, therefore, arc magmatic rocks are with obvious oceanic crust features. Continental arc also comes from the mantle, but magma across the continental crust, and brings obvious continental crustal contamination, so the Andean type magmatic rocks have obvious marks of continental crust. If not considering the influence of the subduction zone, Continental magmatic rocks should come from the heat asthenosphere mantle. If the heat asthenosphere stay at the bottom of the lithosphere, partial melting, there should be formed continental flood basalts, and intermediate-acid magmatic rocks is very little; On the contrary, if the heat asthenosphere breakthrough lithospheric block and up to the bottom of the crust, it will heat the bottom of the lower crust of partial melting, forming a lot of acidic granite, basalt and andesite is rarely. Emei Mountain is the former, and eastern China is the latter. What are the differences and similarities of magmatic rocks in eastern China, Andean and Japan should be petrologists' first proposition, we suggested that China's petrologists and geochemists study not only in eastern China, but also in the Japan arc and the Andean magmatic rocks deeply and in detail.
Compared with eastern China's situation, we will obtain new knowledge, perhaps may help solve the problem of eastern China's magmatic rocks background.
SN 1000-0569
EI 2095-8927
PY 2017
VL 33
IS 5
BP 1507
EP 1523
UT WOS:000403701000010
ER  

PT J
AU Zhang, Q
Jiao, ST
Li, CD
Chen, WF
AF Zhang Qi
Jiao ShouTao
Li ChengDong
Chen WanFeng
TI Granite and continental tectonics, magma thermal field and metallgenesis
SO ACTA PETROLOGICA SINICA
AB Granite and continental tectonic and their relationship with mineralization is two of the most widely discussed fields among earth sciences, for hundreds of years, it has made great achievements and great progress of petrology and mineral deposits. However, there are still problems in basic theory of granite. Two misunderstandings in granite researches: (1) granite without its own independent theory, granite is mainly follow the theory of basalt, such as fractional crystallization, the magma mixing, magma source, tectonic environment, etc. (2) the theories of granite is mainly the application of plate tectonic theory, and plate tectonic theory is not suitable for the study of continental granites. Plate tectonic theory is a good theory, but the plate tectonic theory can only solve the problems of the ocean and the edge (Andes), can't solve the problems of the continent itself. Granite is mainly located in the continent, very few in the ocean. Fractional crystallization of granite is a major issue of the academic debate, this article points out that the granite fractional crystallization is impossible, is analyzed from the field, the microscopic relations, theoretically, the methodology and the logic of syllogism. Magma mixing is another issue, and the author believed that the mixture of granite mainly occurs in the bottom of the earth's lower crust, rather than in the process of granite emplacement and rising. Magmatic emplacement, leaving the source area and the temperature drop, is not conducive to the magma mixing. Granite is mainly physical mixing (basalt is a chemical mingling). At present, geochemical research is the most valued in the granite field. Granite geochemical research should focus on solving two problems: (1) solving questions raised by production; (2) deal with the problem raised by geochemistry their own development. Granite geochemical research is lost with leaving this two. About granite and continental tectonic problems, the author thinks that, granite should be divided into the ocean and the continental series. Located in the edge little affected by the subduction of the ocean and the sea is the ocean series; Located in the continental interior series belong to the continental series. The granite tectonic environment discrimination diagrams only apply to the ocean series. Geodynamic meaning of continental series is not a tectonic environment or the environment, but the temperature and pressure conditions at the bottom of the earth's crust. We have put forward the classification by the Sr-Yb, suited to explain geodynamics of continental series. The relationship between granite and the mineralization is a major issue of the academic debates, which focuses on two issues: (1) the magma is how formed? The magma derived from where? (2) the fluid is how formed? How fluid to rise? In order to discuss the above issues, this paper mainly discussed the magmatic thermal field theory. Using this theory to explain the mineralization related to granite, including a variety of related to the magmatic metamorphic sedimentary hydrothermal mineralization and magmatic thermal field's influence on coal and oil and gas, etc. On this basis, put forward the concept of "metallogenic combination" related to granite. The most important meaning of magmatic thermal field is probably explain why a large magmatic activity related to large-scale metallogeny, points out that 1 + 1 > 2 effect caused by the magma activity.
Large-scale magmatic activities not only solved the problem of large-scale mineralization, also solved the problem of polymetallic mineralization. Big data technology is a hot topic. It can be applied to the study of granite rock and ore deposits completely, the author thinks that. The main characteristic of the large data is not in a big data, but in the new ideas. The characteristic of big data is using new ideas to deal with data. Don't emphasize "causality", takes the "relationship". Do not focus on "why", and only care about "what", which is the characteristic of big data. Actually this is probably the most consistent with the characteristics of geological prospecting. Many people are especially interested in ore deposit genesis; in fact, it is likely that the relationship between ore deposit with strata, rock mass, structure, mainly a causal relationship rather than genetic relationship. The ore deposit study thinking is interlinked with big data. Plate tectonics triggered a revolution in earth science, but it is limited to earth science theory of change. And big data brings the change is not main reflected in earth science theory, but the earth science research methods and research ideas. There will be an unprecedented benefits brought by it.
SN 1000-0569
EI 2095-8927
PY 2017
VL 33
IS 5
BP 1524
EP 1540
UT WOS:000403701000011
ER  

PT J
AU Zurevinski, S
Hollings, P
Zurevinski, S
Hollings, P
Zhou, TF
Wang, SW
AF Zurevinski, Shannon
Hollings, Pete
Zurevinski, Shannon
Hollings, Pete
Zhou TaoFa
Wang ShiWei
TI Exploring the links between granitic magmas and mineralization: Key concepts and critical features
SO ACTA PETROLOGICA SINICA
AB The recent demand for Li, rare earth metals and base metals (e.g. Cu and Mo) has renewed the interest in granite associated mineralization. This review reflects on the diversity of granitic rocks, which are associated with a variety of ore deposits. A summary of different deposit types is presented, specifically: 1) Disseminated rare metal mineralization associated with highly evolved granites; 2) Hydrothermal-type tin and tungsten mineralization (i.e. skarn-type); 3) Rare element pegmatites; and 4) Porphyry-style mineralization. Although the link between granitoids and associated mineralization is not always clear, especially for porphyry systems rather than rare metal deposits, recent advances in the studies of these systems allow these links to be explored. This paper reviews the critical features of their formation, as well as the variations in the granitic magmas associated with mineralization, and presents key genetic models for the different deposits. Although felsic intrusive systems are diverse and complex, recent advances in the research associated with these systems have the potential to be utilized as exploration tools. Geochemical signatures can help to unravel the oxidation states of magmatic systems and ultimately assess the ore-forming potential of a porphyry system, and can be used in conjunction with other exploration tools, such as isotopic trace analyses on mineral separates. Trace element studies on the silicate volatile systems from melt inclusion work are also discussed.
SN 1000-0569
EI 2095-8927
PY 2017
VL 33
IS 5
BP 1541
EP 1553
UT WOS:000403701000012
ER  

PT J
AU Lu, XX
Luo, ZH
Huang, F
Liang, T
Huang, DF
Han, N
Gao, Y
AF Lu XinXiang
Luo ZhaoHua
Huang Fan
Liang Tao
Huang DanFeng
Han Ning
Gao Yuan
TI "Small" magma and "big" fluid lead to form large scale deposit and transmagmatic fluid mineralization: Take for example of Mo deposits in eastern Qinling-Dabie mountain metallogenic belt
SO ACTA PETROLOGICA SINICA
AB A close temporal and spatial relationship existed between magmatic activity and the endogenous metal mineralization. In order to explain the relationship between mineralization and magmatic rocks, the (post-) magmatic hydrothermal ore-forming theory had been proposed. In other words, metallogenic materials are evolved from magmatic differentiation. In fact, this understanding considers the endogenous metal metallogenic system as an ideal system. The research on the relationship between Mo deposit and granite showed that the deposits were closely related to small intrusion ("small" magma), and were irrelevant to the batholith. A common characteristic of large or giant scale deposits is that the extensive development of hydrothermal alteration ("big" fluid) and its scope is larger than small intrusion dozens or hundreds of times implying external fluid participated in the mineralization. There is no strong differentiation crystallization in the formation process of the small intrusion, so the small intrusion was unable to provide adequate ore forming matter to form a giant deposit which can proved by the mass balance calculation. Therefore, rock-forming and mineralization have essential difference. The metallogenic system should be a nonlinear complexity dynamic system. Research shows that the magma of small intrusion is often derived from lower crust and ore-forming fluid is derived from the mantle showing double layer structure. Magma is actually a channel connecting the deep and shallow. The ore-forming fluid of the non-magma differentiation of what we call the transmagmatic fluid. The small intrusion is not an essential condition for mineralization. Only when the development of large-scale fluid can form large deposit. Although there are more than 200 small intrusions in eastern Qinling-Dabie Mountain, only 10 small intrusions associated with giant deposits. More typically, small intrusions did not develop mineralization because of no development fluid (hydrothermal alteration) or less fluid (weak hydrothermal alteration). From the point of the current situation, magmatic metallogenic system is actually a fluid (volatile) supersaturated systems or strong interaction of melt-fluid flow and fluid in the melt. When a large number of deep high temperature and high pressure fluid is added into the magmatic metallogenic system, the system will have great activity ability which can effectively guarantee dissolved metal in deep in fluid to rapidly rise through the crack to shallow crust and mineralize. To explain the above metallogenic characteristics, the author introduce and define the concept of transmagmatic fluid. Transmagmatic fluid is redefined as external fluid which penetrate magma, the result is a nonliner change in the magma system. Therefore, the magma injected ore-forming fluid can form ore, the magma without ore-forming fluid cant form ore. This cognition can well explain why most small instrusions in eatern Qinling - Dabie mountain dont metallogenic or only form small ores.
SN 1000-0569
EI 2095-8927
PY 2017
VL 33
IS 5
BP 1554
EP 1570
UT WOS:000403701000013
ER  

PT J
AU Xing, GF
Hong, WT
Zhang, XH
Zhao, XL
Ban, YZ
Xiao, F
AF Xing GuangFu
Hong WenTao
Zhang XueHui
Zhao XiLin
Ban YiZhong
Xiao Fan
TI Yanshanian granitic magmatisms and their mineralizations in East China
SO ACTA PETROLOGICA SINICA
AB East China is one of important W-Cu-Fe-Au-Ag-U and Pb-Zn industrial bases in China. In this paper, we systematically summarize Yanshanian granitic magmatisms and their mineralizations in major metallogenic belts such as Qinhang and Wuyishan metallogenic belts, and divide Early and Late metallogenic episodes as well as four metallogenic stages in East China. (1) The 1(st) metallogenic stage is early stage of Early Yanshanian (180 similar to 165Ma), forming I-type and adakitic rocks and related porphyry- and skarn-type Cu-Pb-Zn-Ag deposits which dominantly occurred in eastern Qinhang metallogenic belt and southwestern Fujian depression of Wuyishan metallogenic belt, among them adakitic magmas were derived from the partial melting of the (delaminationed) thickened lower crust under compressed setting of paleo-Pacific Plate subduction; (2) The 2(nd) metallogenic stage is late stage of Early Yanshanian (160 similar to 165Ma), mainly forming crust-derived peraluminous S-type granitoids and related W-Sn & Nb-Ta deposits, while minor I-type granites; (3) The 3(rd) metallogenic stage is early stage of Late Yanshanian (140 similar to 120Ma). In the stage, S- and I-A type volcanic-subvolcanic complex and related hydrothermal Pb-Zn and U deposits co-existing in the region. Along Qinhang suture zone occur A-type granites and relatedW-Sn-Nb-Ta deposits, whose ages (125 similar to 135Ma) are slightly younger than these S-type rocks. While, the I-type granites and related skarn- or quartz vein-type W-Sn-Fe-Mo deposits intensively outcrop in the Wuyishan area; (4) The 4(th) metallogenic stage is late stage of Late Yanshanian (120 similar to 90Ma), under strong extensional setting of subducted slab rollback, accompany with generation of miarolite, peralkaline granitic rocks and bimodal volcanics in the coastal region of East China, forming fruitful epithermal Au-Ag-Cu deposits, which are mainly related to high-K I-type granites. Spatial-temporal differences of magmatisms and mineralizations between both Qinhang and Wuyishan metallogenic belts were mainly controlled by the process of paleo-Pacific Plate subduction and basement materials.
SN 1000-0569
EI 2095-8927
PY 2017
VL 33
IS 5
BP 1571
EP 1590
UT WOS:000403701000014
ER  

PT J
AU Wu, JH
Guo, GL
Guo, JL
Zhang, Q
Wu, RG
Yu, DG
AF Wu JianHua
Guo GuoLin
Guo JiaLei
Zhang Qi
Wu RenGui
Yu DaGan
TI Spatial-temporal distribution of Mesozoic igneous rock and their relationship with hydrothermal uranium deposits in eastern China
SO ACTA PETROLOGICA SINICA
AB It was characterized by extensive development of Mesozoic magmatism and widely distributed a large number of hydrothermal uranium deposits in eastern China. According to the spatial distribution of igneous rocks and uranium deposits from north to the south, it can be divided into 8 volcanic intrusive belts of Great Xing'an Range, Lesser Xing'an-Changbaishan, northern Hebei western Liaoning, northern Dabieshan, the Middle-Lower Reaches of Yangtze River, southeastern Yangtze Block, Wuyi-yunkai areas, the Southeast Coastal areas, and 9 hydrothermal uranium metallogenic belts of Guyuan-Hongshanzi, Qinglong-Xingcheng, LuzongQixia, Ganhang, Wuyi Mountain, Taoshan-Zhuguang, Chenzhou-qinzhou, the Middle Hunan Province, and 5 uranium metallogenic perspective zones of Manzhouli-Erguna, Zhalantun, Yichun, Jinzhai, Tianmo Mountain. The temporal distribution of the magmatic activity of those volcanic intrusive belts can be subdivided into 8 stages, such as 250 similar to 233Ma, 228 similar to 205Ma, 195 similar to 175Ma, 165 similar to 150Ma, 145 similar to 130Ma, 126 similar to 115Ma, 110 similar to 100Ma, 97 similar to 80Ma, which can also be classified two-phase metallogenic systems, early stage characterized by high temperature and deep source origin, and late stage with low temperature and shallow origin. Granite type hydrothermal uranium deposits can be divided into 11 ore deposit types, and volcanic type hydrothermal uranium deposits can be divided into 15 ore deposit types. Exploration results show that granite hydrothermal type uranium deposit has a close relationship with specific periods of magmatite activity, but irrelevant with lithology and lithofacies of igneous rocks. Granite type hydrothermal uranium deposits are mainly existed in the Triassic granite, and that those volcanic type hydrothermal uranium deposits are mainly hosted in inner and outer contact zones of the early Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks.
SN 1000-0569
EI 2095-8927
PY 2017
VL 33
IS 5
BP 1591
EP 1614
UT WOS:000403701000015
ER  

EF  

黔ICP备07002071号-2
主办单位:中国矿物岩石地球化学学会
印刷版(Print): ISSN 1000-0569 网络版(Online): ISSN 2095-8927
单位地址:北京9825信箱/北京朝阳区北土城西路19号
本系统由北京勤云科技发展有限公司设计

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